Jacquard, Joseph-Marie

SUBJECT AREA: Textiles
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b. 7 July 1752 Lyons, France
d. 7 August 1834 Oullines, France
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French developer of the apparatus named after him and used for selecting complicated patterns in weaving.
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Jacquard was apprenticed at the age of 12 to bookbinding, and later to type-founding and cutlery. His parents, who had some connection with weaving, left him a small property upon their death. He made some experiments with pattern weaving, but lost all his inheritance; after marrying, he returned to type-founding and cutlery. In 1790 he formed the idea for his machine, but it was forgotten amidst the excitement of the French Revolution, in which he fought for the Revolutionists at the defence of Lyons. The machine he completed in 1801 combined earlier inventions and was for weaving net. He was sent to Paris to demonstrate it at the National Exposition and received a bronze medal. In 1804 Napoleon granted him a patent, a pension of 1,500 francs and a premium on each machine sold. This enabled him to study and work at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers to perfect his mechanism for pattern weaving. A method of selecting any combination of leashes at each shoot of the weft had to be developed, and Jacquard's mechanism was the outcome of various previous inventions. By taking the cards invented by Falcon in 1728 that were punched with holes like the paper of Bouchon in 1725, to select the needles for each pick, and by placing the apparatus above the loom where Vaucanson had put his mechanism, Jacquard combined the best features of earlier inventions. He was not entirely successful because his invention failed in the way it pressed the card against the needles; later modifications by Breton in 1815 and Skola in 1819 were needed before it functioned reliably. However, the advantage of Jacquard's machine was that each pick could be selected much more quickly than on the earlier draw looms, which meant that John Kay's flying shuttle could be introduced on fine pattern looms because the weaver no longer had to wait for the drawboy to sort out the leashes for the next pick. Robert Kay's drop box could also be used with different coloured wefts. The drawboy could be dispensed with because the foot-pedal operating the Jacquard mechanism could be worked by the weaver. Patterns could be changed quickly by replacing one set of cards with another, but the scope of the pattern was more limited than with the draw loom. Some machines that were brought into use aroused bitter hostility. Jacquard suffered physical violence, barely escaping with his life, and his machines were burnt by weavers at Lyons. However, by 1812 his mechanism began to be generally accepted and had been applied to 11,000 draw-looms in France. In 1819 Jacquard received a gold medal and a Cross of Honour for his invention. His machines reached England c.1816 and still remain the basic way of weaving complicated patterns.
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Principal Honours and Distinctions
French Cross of Honour 1819. National Exposition Bronze Medal 1801.
Further Reading
A.Barlow, 1878, The History and Principles of Weaving by Hand and by Power, London.
C.Singer (ed.), 1958, A History of Technology, Vol. IV, Oxford: Clarendon Press.
R.L.Hills, 1970, Power in the Industrial Revolution, Manchester (covers the introduction of pattern weaving and the power loom).
RLH

Biographical history of technology. - Taylor & Francis e-Librar. . 2005.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Jacquard, Joseph-Marie — (1752 1834)    inventor    Born in lyon, the son of a weaver, Joseph Marie Jacquard developed the Jacquard loom, which enabled a single operator to weave complex patterns. The Jacquard loom began a technological revolution in the textile industry …   France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present

  • Jacquard,Joseph Marie — Jac·quard (jăkʹärd , jə kärdʹ, zhä kärʹ), Joseph Marie. 1752 1834. French inventor of the jacquard loom (1801), the first automatic loom able to weave complex patterns. * * * …   Universalium

  • Jacquard, Joseph-Marie — born July 7, 1752, Lyon, Fr. died Aug. 7, 1834, Oullins French inventor. In 1801 he demonstrated an automatic loom incorporating revolutionary new technology; it was declared public property in 1806, and Jacquard was rewarded with a pension and a …   Universalium

  • Jacquard, Joseph-Marie — ► (1752 1834) Tejedor de seda francés. Inventó un dispositivo que permite la separación automática de los hilos de la urdimbre para dar paso a la trama, por complicados que sean los dibujos a tejer. Esta innovación contribuyó al progreso de la… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Jacquard, Joseph Marie —    A Frenchman who invented a loom attachment in 1804 that made it possible to weave complex figured patterns in cloth, his namesake …   Historical Dictionary of the Fashion Industry

  • Joseph-Marie Jacquard — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jacquard. Joseph Marie Jacquard …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Joseph Marie Jacquard — (* 7. Juli 1752 in Lyon; † 7. August 1834 in Oullins) war ein französischer Erfinder, der durch seine Weiterentwicklung des Webstuhls entscheidend zur industriellen Revolution beitrug …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph-Marie Jacquard — (eigentlich Joseph Marie Charles genannt Jacquard, * 7. Juli 1752 in Lyon; † 7. August 1834 in Oullins) war ein französischer Erfinder, der durch seine Weiterentwicklung des Webstuhls entscheidend zur industriellen Revolution beitrug. Leben… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Joseph Marie Jacquard — Joseph Marie Jacquard. Joseph Marie Jacquard (n.Lyon, 7 de julio de 1752 m. Oullins, 7 de agosto de 1834) Fue un inventor francés conocido por automatizar, mediante el uso de tarjetas perforadas, el llamado telar de Jacquard. Hijo de un obrero… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Joseph Marie Jacquard — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Jacquard. Joseph Marie Jacquard Nom de naissance …   Wikipédia en Français

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